Methodology

Data

The ISC’s Ranking of Islamic Countries Universities and Research Institutions 2013-14 is a project which has ranked about 600 of top Islamic countries’ universities and research institutions with highest number of publications in the most prestigious international scientific journals (core journals) during 2008-2012. Each publication was assigned to one or several institutions through investigating the institutional affiliations mentioned by the authors of the publications. Because of variations in the name of institutions and the fact that organization names can change over time and they can also be born, die, split or merge, it is important, though difficult, to determine the authors of a paper’s institutions correctly. Spelling variances for each institution were recognized and retrieved. Only documents of article, proceedings paper and review type published in the core journals were processed, which are referred to as paper in this methodology.

Indicators

Scientific impact indicators

The ISC ranking offers the following indicators for assessment of the scientific impact of a university or a research institution:

1.      Total citations: The total number of citations received by the publications of a university or a research institution that are normalized for field differences and publication year.

2.      Highly cited papers: The total number of highly cited papers affiliated to a university or research institution. Citation rate vary by field and time, while the older papers are cited more than the recent ones. These two factors were taken into account for determining highly cited papers. So to select highly cited papers in a specific field and a specific publication year, the papers in that field and year were sorted based on the number of citations received by those papers. Next, the minimum number of citations received by top 1% of papers was computed as citation threshold in that year and field. Papers with received citations equal to or more than the threshold number were marked as highly cited papers.

Scientific diplomacy indicators

The following indicators for the evaluation of Scientific diplomacy are applied in ISC’s Ranking of Islamic Countries Universities and Research Institutions system:

1.      Collaboration with Islamic countries: Total number of papers of an institution written jointly with the collaboration of another Islamic country other than the institution’s country of origin.

2.      International collaboration: Total number of papers of an institution written with the collaboration of at least one non- Islamic country.

3.      Collaboration with the world's high impact institutions: Total number of papers of an institution written with the collaboration of at least one of the top 500 institutions of the world ranked by Leiden Ranking 2013.

4.      Inter-organizational collaboration: Total number of papers of an institution affiliated to more than one institution.

Scientific production indicators

The following indicators for assessing scientific production are applied in the ISC Ranking:

1.      Total papers: The total number of papers of the institution.

2.      Corresponding papers: The number of institution's papers in which the institution's authors are corresponding authors.

3.      Papers in high tech research areas: The number of papers of the institution in the following subject areas: computer science, space science, stem cell, nanotechnology, biotechnology, water and microelectronic.

4.      Papers in Islamic and humanities research areas: The number of institution's papers in social sciences, humanities and religion subject areas.

Economic impact indicators

1.      Funded research: The number of papers resulted from the funded research.

2.      Collaboration with private and public sectors: The number of papers written jointly with at least one institution other than the universities and research institutions in the private or public sectors.

3.      International funded research: The number of papers resulted from the funded researches and affiliated to more than one country.

Counting methods

Fractional counting: The fractional counting method does not give equal weight to all publications of a university. For example, if a paper was affiliated to 3 authors from A's institution and 2 authors from B's institution then the score of A's institution is 3/5 or 0.6 and the score of B's institution is 2/5 or 0.4. The fractional counting was used for scientific production assessment.

Full counting: The full counting method gives equal weight to all publications of a university. For example, if a paper was written by 3 authors from A's institution and 2 authors from B's institution then the score of A's institution is 1 and the score of B's institution is the same as the A's. The full counting was used for all the above mentioned indicators except scientific production one.

The weight of indicators


Category

Indicator

Weight

Scientific impact indicators

Total citations

40%

Highly cited papers

5%

Scientific diplomacy indicators

Collaboration with Islamic countries

2%

International collaboration

3%

Collaboration with the world's high impact institutions

8%

Inter-organizational collaboration

2%

Scientific production indicators

Total papers

15%

Corresponding papers

5%

Papers in high tech research areas

10%

Papers in Islamic and humanities research areas

5%

Economic impact indicators

Funded research

3%

Collaboration with private and public sectors

1%

International funded research

1%

 

Ranking by fields

ISC ranked universities and research institutions at the level of science as a whole and also at the level of five broad fields including natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, where each field consists of the most related journals in that area. These broad fields of science have been defined at the journal level and each of these broad fields involves several subfields, so research performance in subordinate fields forms the performance in a superordinate field. The Revised Field of Science and Technology (FOS) Classification introduced by the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) was applied in the ISC ranking. The following table shows the superordinate and subordinate fields:

1

Natural Sciences

1.1

Mathematics

1.2

Computer and information sciences

1.3

Physical sciences

1.4

Chemical sciences

1.5

Earth and related environmental sciences

1.6

Biological sciences

1.7

Other natural sciences

2

Engineering and Technology

2.1

Civil engineering

2.2

Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering

2.3

Mechanical engineering

2.4

Chemical engineering

2.5

Materials engineering

2.6

Medical engineering

2.7

Environmental engineering

2.8

Environmental biotechnology

2.9

Industrial Biotechnology

2.1

Nano-technology

2.11

Other engineering and technologies

3

Medical and Health Sciences

3.1

Basic medicine

3.2

Clinical medicine

3.3

Health sciences

3.4

Health biotechnology

3.5

Other medical sciences

4

Agricultural Sciences

4.1

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries

4.2

Animal and dairy science

4.3

Veterinary science

4.4

Agricultural biotechnology

4.5

Other agricultural sciences

5

Social Sciences

5.1

Psychology

5.2

Economics and business

5.3

Educational sciences

5.4

Sociology

5.5

Law

5.6

Political Science

5.7

Social and economic geography

5.8

Media and communications

5.7

Other social sciences

 

 

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